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Exploring the Function and Design of Torsion Spring Mechanisms

source:Qianye Precision time:2023-10-19

Torsion spring mechanisms are widely used in various applications due to their ability to store and release rotational energy. These mechanisms are commonly found in devices such as door hinges, vehicle suspension systems, and mechanical watches. In this article, we will explore the function and design principles of torsion spring mechanisms.

Function of Torsion Spring Mechanisms

Torsion springs are designed to exert a rotational force or torque when twisted. This torque is proportional to the angle of twist and the spring constant, which is a measure of the spring’s stiffness. When the spring is twisted, it resists the applied torque and stores potential energy. The stored energy is then released when the torque is removed, causing the spring to unwind and return to its original shape.

One of the primary functions of torsion springs is to provide a restoring force or torque that opposes an applied force. For example, in a door hinge, the torsion spring provides the necessary torque to close the door and keep it in a closed position. Without the torsion spring, the door would swing freely and not stay in place. Similarly, in a mechanical watch, the torsion spring provides the torque needed to drive the watch hands.

Design Principles of Torsion Spring Mechanisms

Designing an efficient and reliable torsion spring mechanism requires careful consideration of various factors, including the material selection, dimensions, and geometry of the spring.

Material Selection:

The choice of material for torsion springs depends on the specific application requirements. Common materials used include steel alloys, stainless steel, and titanium. The material should have excellent spring properties, such as high yield strength, tensile strength, and fatigue resistance. It should also have good corrosion resistance, especially in outdoor or harsh environments.


The dimensions of a torsion spring, such as the wire diameter, coil diameter, and number of coils, are critical to its performance. These dimensions determine the spring constant, which affects the amount of torque the spring can exert. Increasing the wire diameter or coil diameter can increase the stiffness of the spring, while adding more coils can provide a higher torque output. However, it is essential to balance the dimensions to avoid excessive stress or deformation.





The geometry of a torsion spring also plays a crucial role in its performance. The most common type of torsion spring is the helical spring, which consists of a coiled wire. The wire can have a cylindrical, conical, or barrel-shaped coil. The choice of coil shape depends on factors such as space limitations, torque requirements, and aesthetic considerations. Additionally, the end configurations of the spring, such as hooks or loops, are designed to facilitate attachment to the application.

Manufacturing Process:

Torsion springs are typically manufactured through a process called cold winding, where the wire is wound around a mandrel or arbor. The wire is then heat-treated to improve its spring properties and remove residual stresses. The final step involves stress relieving and shot peening to enhance the spring’s fatigue resistance. Accurate coiling and precise control of the manufacturing process are essential to ensure consistent performance and longevity of the spring.


Torsion spring mechanisms are vital components in a wide range of applications, providing the necessary torque to perform various functions. By understanding the function and design principles of torsion springs, engineers can create efficient and reliable mechanisms that meet specific requirements. The proper selection of materials, dimensions, and geometry, along with careful manufacturing processes, ensures optimal performance and longevity of torsion springs.

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